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How does a server farm handle a database?


I have been making some research in the domain of servers for a website I want to launch. I thought of a certain configuration of a server with RAID 10 implemented with a NAS doing the backup which has a RAID 10 configuration as well. This should keep data safe in 99.99+ of cases.

My problem appeared when I thought about the need of a second server. If I shall ever require more processing power and thus more storage for users, how can I connect a second server to my primary one and make them act as one what the database (mySQL) is regarded?

I mean, I don't want to replicate my first DB on the second server and load-balance the request - I want to use just one DB (maybe external) and let the servers use it both at the same time. Is this possible? And is the option of backing up mySQL data on a NAS viable?

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