Calling shell commands from Ruby

Question!

How do I call shell commands from inside of a Ruby program? How do I then get output from these commands back into Ruby?



Answers

This explanation is based on a commented Ruby script from a friend of mine. If you want to improve the script, feel free to update it at the link.

First, note that when Ruby calls out to a shell, it typically calls /bin/sh, not Bash. Some Bash syntax is not supported by /bin/sh on all systems.

Here are ways to execute a shell script:

cmd = "echo 'hi'" # Sample string that can be used
  1. Kernel#` , commonly called backticks – `cmd`

    This is like many other languages, including Bash, PHP, and Perl.

    Returns the result of the shell command.

    Docs: http://ruby-doc.org/core/Kernel.html#method-i-60

    value = `echo 'hi'`
    value = `#{cmd}`
    
  2. Built-in syntax, %x( cmd )

    Following the x character is a delimiter, which can be any character. If the delimiter is one of the characters (, [, {, or <, the literal consists of the characters up to the matching closing delimiter, taking account of nested delimiter pairs. For all other delimiters, the literal comprises the characters up to the next occurrence of the delimiter character. String interpolation #{ ... } is allowed.

    Returns the result of the shell command, just like the backticks.

    Docs: http://www.ruby-doc.org/docs/ProgrammingRuby/html/language.html

    value = %x( echo 'hi' )
    value = %x[ #{cmd} ]
    
  3. Kernel#system

    Executes the given command in a subshell.

    Returns true if the command was found and ran successfully, false otherwise.

    Docs: http://ruby-doc.org/core/Kernel.html#method-i-system

    wasGood = system( "echo 'hi'" )
    wasGood = system( cmd )
    
  4. Kernel#exec

    Replaces the current process by running the given external command.

    Returns none, the current process is replaced and never continues.

    Docs: http://ruby-doc.org/core/Kernel.html#method-i-exec

    exec( "echo 'hi'" )
    exec( cmd ) # Note: this will never be reached because of the line above
    

Here's some extra advice: $?, which is the same as $CHILD_STATUS, accesses the status of the last system executed command if you use the backticks, system() or %x{}. You can then access the exitstatus and pid properties:

$?.exitstatus

For more reading see:



Here's a flowchart based on this answer. See also, using script to emulate a terminal.

enter image description here

By : Ian


If you have a more complex case than the common case (that can not be handled with ``) then check out Kernel.spawn() here. This seems to be the most generic/full-featured provided by stock Ruby to execute external commands.

E.g. you can use it to:

  • create process groups (Windows)
  • redirect in, out, error to files/each-other.
  • set env vars, umask
  • change dir before executing command
  • set resource limits for CPU/data/...
  • Do everything that can be done with other options in other answers, but with more code.

Official ruby documentation has good enough examples.

env: hash
  name => val : set the environment variable
  name => nil : unset the environment variable
command...:
  commandline                 : command line string which is passed to the standard shell
  cmdname, arg1, ...          : command name and one or more arguments (no shell)
  [cmdname, argv0], arg1, ... : command name, argv[0] and zero or more arguments (no shell)
options: hash
  clearing environment variables:
    :unsetenv_others => true   : clear environment variables except specified by env
    :unsetenv_others => false  : dont clear (default)
  process group:
    :pgroup => true or 0 : make a new process group
    :pgroup => pgid      : join to specified process group
    :pgroup => nil       : dont change the process group (default)
  create new process group: Windows only
    :new_pgroup => true  : the new process is the root process of a new process group
    :new_pgroup => false : dont create a new process group (default)
  resource limit: resourcename is core, cpu, data, etc.  See Process.setrlimit.
    :rlimit_resourcename => limit
    :rlimit_resourcename => [cur_limit, max_limit]
  current directory:
    :chdir => str
  umask:
    :umask => int
  redirection:
    key:
      FD              : single file descriptor in child process
      [FD, FD, ...]   : multiple file descriptor in child process
    value:
      FD                        : redirect to the file descriptor in parent process
      string                    : redirect to file with open(string, "r" or "w")
      [string]                  : redirect to file with open(string, File::RDONLY)
      [string, open_mode]       : redirect to file with open(string, open_mode, 0644)
      [string, open_mode, perm] : redirect to file with open(string, open_mode, perm)
      [:child, FD]              : redirect to the redirected file descriptor
      :close                    : close the file descriptor in child process
    FD is one of follows
      :in     : the file descriptor 0 which is the standard input
      :out    : the file descriptor 1 which is the standard output
      :err    : the file descriptor 2 which is the standard error
      integer : the file descriptor of specified the integer
      io      : the file descriptor specified as io.fileno
  file descriptor inheritance: close non-redirected non-standard fds (3, 4, 5, ...) or not
    :close_others => false : inherit fds (default for system and exec)
    :close_others => true  : dont inherit (default for spawn and IO.popen)
By : Kashyap


This video can help you solving your question :)
By: admin