In XCode5, is it still the case that if you want to profile a release build of your app, then archive it for distribution, you have to manually change the provisioning profiles in build settings? That's how I remember it being in XCode4 - building with a distribution provisioning profile means XCode can't hook the process on the device.
Profiling Vs Archiving - different code signing requirements?
building with a distribution provisioning profile means XCode can't hook the process on the device.
If you build for distribution through the App Store, the program won't run at all until it has been signed by Apple. So yes, you'd still need to change the provision profile in order to run the app so that you can profile it.
If you archive an application it is signed with the provision profile that you have indicated to use under its build configuration.
An archived app can be resigned with a different provision profile at a later time (though the organizer or command line), so in a way, they are independent of provision profile.