Implementation C++14 make_integer_sequence

Tags: c++ gcc c++11 c++14

I tried to implement the C++14 alias template make_integer_sequence, which simplifies the creation of the class template integer_sequence.

template< class T, T... I> struct integer_sequence
    typedef T value_type;
    static constexpr size_t size() noexcept { return sizeof...(I) ; }


template< class T, T N>
using make_integer_sequence = integer_sequence< T, 0,1,2, ... ,N-1 >; // only for illustration.

To implement make_integer_sequence we need a helper structure make_helper.

template< class T , class N >
using make_integer_sequence = typename make_helper<T,N>::type;

Implementing make_helper isn't too difficult.

template< class T, T N, T... I >
struct make_helper
   typedef typename mpl::if_< T(0) == N,  
                  mpl::identity< integer_sequence<T,I...> >,
                  make_helper< T, N-1, N-1,I...> 

To test make_integer_sequence I made this main function:

int main()
    #define GEN(z,n,temp)   \
     typedef make_integer_sequence< int, n >  BOOST_PP_CAT(int_seq,n) ;

   BOOST_PP_REPEAT(256, GEN, ~);

I compiled the program with GCC 4.8.0, on a quad-core i5 system with 8GBs of RAM. Successful compilation took 4 seconds.

But, when I changed the GEN macro to:

int main() {

#define GEN(z,n,temp) \
typedef make_integer_sequence< int, n * 4 > BOOST_PP_CAT(int_seq, n) ;


The compilation was unsuccessful and outputted the error message:

virtual memory exhausted.

Could somebody explain this error and what caused it?


I simplified the test to:

int main()
   typedef make_integer_sequence< int, 4096 > int_seq4096;

I then successfully compiled with GCC 4.8.0 -ftemplate-depth=65536.

However this second test:

int main()
    typedef make_integer_sequence< int, 16384 > int_seq16384;

Did not compile with GCC 4.8.0 -ftemplate-depth=65536, and resulted in the error:

virtual memory exhausted.

So, my question is, how do I decrease template deep instantiation?

Regards, Khurshid.

By : Khurshid

Here's a log N implementation that doesn't even need an increased max-depth for template instantiations and compiles pretty fast:

// using aliases for cleaner syntax
template<class T> using Invoke = typename T::type;

template<unsigned...> struct seq{ using type = seq; };

template<class S1, class S2> struct concat;

template<unsigned... I1, unsigned... I2>
struct concat<seq<I1...>, seq<I2...>>
  : seq<I1..., (sizeof...(I1)+I2)...>{};

template<class S1, class S2>
using Concat = Invoke<concat<S1, S2>>;

template<unsigned N> struct gen_seq;
template<unsigned N> using GenSeq = Invoke<gen_seq<N>>;

template<unsigned N>
struct gen_seq : Concat<GenSeq<N/2>, GenSeq<N - N/2>>{};

template<> struct gen_seq<0> : seq<>{};
template<> struct gen_seq<1> : seq<0>{};
By : Xeo

This is basically me hacking around Xeo's solution: Making community wiki - if appreciative, please upvote Xeo.

...just modified until I felt it couldn't get any simpler, renamed and added value_type and size() per the Standard (but only doing index_sequence not integer_sequence), and code working with GCC 5.2 -std=c++14 could run otherwise unaltered under older/other compilers I'm stuck with. Might save someone some time / confusion.

// based on by Xeo
namespace std  // WARNING: at own risk, otherwise use own namespace
    template <size_t... Ints>
    struct index_sequence
        using type = index_sequence;
        using value_type = size_t;
        static constexpr std::size_t size() noexcept { return sizeof...(Ints); }

    // --------------------------------------------------------------

    template <class Sequence1, class Sequence2>
    struct _merge_and_renumber;

    template <size_t... I1, size_t... I2>
    struct _merge_and_renumber<index_sequence<I1...>, index_sequence<I2...>>
      : index_sequence<I1..., (sizeof...(I1)+I2)...>
    { };

    // --------------------------------------------------------------

    template <size_t N>
    struct make_index_sequence
      : _merge_and_renumber<typename make_index_sequence<N/2>::type,
                            typename make_index_sequence<N - N/2>::type>
    { };

    template<> struct make_index_sequence<0> : index_sequence<> { };
    template<> struct make_index_sequence<1> : index_sequence<0> { };


  • the "magic" of Xeo's solution is in the declaration of _merge_and_renumber (concat in his code) with exactly two parameters, while the specilisation effectively exposes their individual parameter packs

  • the typename...::type in...

    struct make_index_sequence
      : _merge_and_renumber<typename make_index_sequence<N/2>::type,
                            typename make_index_sequence<N - N/2>::type>

    avoids the error:

invalid use of incomplete type 'struct std::_merge_and_renumber<std::make_index_sequence<1ul>, std::index_sequence<0ul> >'
By : Tony D

I found very fast and needless deep recursion version of implementation of make_index_sequence. In my PC it compiles with N = 1 048 576 , with 2 s. (PC : Centos 6.4 x86, i5, 8 Gb RAM, gcc-4.4.7 -std=c++0x -O2 -Wall).

#include <cstddef> // for std::size_t

template< std::size_t ... i >
struct index_sequence
    typedef std::size_t value_type;

    typedef index_sequence<i...> type;

    // gcc-4.4.7 doesn't support `constexpr` and `noexcept`.
    static /*constexpr*/ std::size_t size() /*noexcept*/
        return sizeof ... (i); 

// this structure doubles index_sequence elements.
// s- is number of template arguments in IS.
template< std::size_t s, typename IS >
struct doubled_index_sequence;

template< std::size_t s, std::size_t ... i >
struct doubled_index_sequence< s, index_sequence<i... > >
    typedef index_sequence<i..., (s + i)... > type;

// this structure incremented by one index_sequence, iff NEED-is true, 
// otherwise returns IS
template< bool NEED, typename IS >
struct inc_index_sequence;

template< typename IS >
struct inc_index_sequence<false,IS>{ typedef IS type; };

template< std::size_t ... i >
struct inc_index_sequence< true, index_sequence<i...> >
    typedef index_sequence<i..., sizeof...(i)> type;

// helper structure for make_index_sequence.
template< std::size_t N >
struct make_index_sequence_impl : 
           inc_index_sequence< (N % 2 != 0), 
                typename doubled_index_sequence< N / 2,
                           typename make_index_sequence_impl< N / 2> ::type

 // helper structure needs specialization only with 0 element.
template<>struct make_index_sequence_impl<0>{ typedef index_sequence<> type; };

// OUR make_index_sequence,  gcc-4.4.7 doesn't support `using`, 
// so we use struct instead of it.
template< std::size_t N >
struct make_index_sequence : make_index_sequence_impl<N>::type {};

//index_sequence_for  any variadic templates
template< typename ... T >
struct index_sequence_for : make_index_sequence< sizeof...(T) >{};

// test
typedef make_index_sequence< 1024 * 1024 >::type a_big_index_sequence;
int main(){}
By : Khurshid

This video can help you solving your question :)
By: admin